Reference guide for indoor air quality in schools creating. Health concerns like iaq benefit most from a holistic approach. Below are descriptions of common household plants that can. Indoor air pollution has been associated with a wide range of health. Indoor air pollution is one of the worlds largest environmental problems particularly for the poorest in the world who often do not have access to clean fuels for cooking the global burden of disease is a major global study on the causes and risk factors for death and disease published in the medical journal the lancet.
View indoor air pollution research papers on academia. Indoor air pollution, health and economic wellbeing. An introduction to air pollution definitions, classifications, and history. Indoor air pollution has a significant impact on the health of the population in pakistan. Choosing natural, lowtoxin options that have as little scent as possible is therefore important for air pollution prevention. Mobile sources mobile sources include onroad vehicles like cars, trucks, and buses. Guideline for the characterization of volatile organic compounds emitted from indoor. Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulates, or biological materials that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as. Reference guide for indoor air quality in schools us epa. Aerosol effects on plants, as well as the air pollutants health effects of the most important pollutants have been discussed. Indoor air quality is affected by many factors including the type and running conditions of indoor pollution sources, ventilation conditions, as well as indoor activities. Improved stove interventions to reduce household air.
Report to congress on indoor air quality, volume ii. Indoor air pollution is caused by burning solid fuel sources such as firewood, crop waste, and dung for cooking and heating. About 27,000 people died from hap in andhra pradesh in 2016 according to gbd 2016. In sum, indoor air pollution has the potential to not only impact health, but also impact the general economic wellbeing of the household. Environmental protection agency epa studies of human exposure to air pollution indicate that indoor levels of pollutants may be 25 times, and occasionally more than 100 times, higher than outdoor levels. Tobacco smoke is one of the most significant indoor sources of air pollution. The largest sources of humancreated air pollution are energy generation, transportation. Anthropogenic air pollution commenced with humans systematic use of fire. Indoor air pollution is the degradation of indoor air quality by harmful chemicals and other materials.
When we talk about air pollution, we often think of smog, chemicals produced by factories or exhaust from cars. Household air pollution and underfive mortality in india. Environmental protection agency epa ranks indoor air pollution as one of the top 5 threats to public health and notes that people living in industrial societies spend as much as 90% of their lives indoors. People involved in buying, improving and building homes are more interested in the tangibles like location, style and finishes. These sources can be further differentiated into either mobile or stationary sources 2. Environmental protection agency epa studies of human exposure to air pollutants indicate that indoor levels of pollutants may be two to five times and occasionally more than 100. National policies and challenges to reduce indoor air. Houseplants that remove toxins from the home the u. Jan 06, 2017 when we talk about air pollution, we often think of smog, chemicals produced by factories or exhaust from cars. Sources and health impacts pollutants from natural sources pollutant major sources in the home possible health impacts radon colorless, tasteless, and odorless gas that comes from the radioactive decay of uranium or radium. The amount of ventilation in a building is important when thinking about. These are problems that usually affect the air outdoors, but there can be indoor pollution, too. An emissions inventory is an accounting of the amount of pollution discharged into an airshed from different sources. Published by the arab school for science and technology asst.
Studies revealed that the outdoor environment is also an important factor that. Sources of air pollution air pollutants consist of gaseous pollutants, odours, and spm, suspended particulate matter such as dust, fumes, mist, and smoke. Household air pollution hap predominantly from cooking fuel is a major public health hazard and one of the leading causes of respiratory illness and deaths among children underfive years in india. Poor indoor air quality has been linked to sick building syndrome, reduced productivity and impaired learning in schools. Environmental protection agency, office of air and radiation. Outdoor air pollution from factories, vehicles, wildfires, and other sources how to improve indoor air quality. Chronic exposure to urban air pollution affects lung function, increases the risk of cvd and lung cancer, alters immunity, induces dna and. This is because contained areas enable potential pollutants to build up more than open spaces. Indoor air pollution refers to the pollution of the air inside the houses or the living spaces. More people are beginning to recognize the impact of indoor air quality iaq on personal health. Indoor air pollution may arise from the use of open fires, unsafe fuels or combustion of biomass fuels, coal and kerosene.
Indoor air pollution has occurred since prehistoric times when people moved to live indoors and fire was brought into closed shelters for cooking and space heating 1. Exposure to air pollutants is continuous and, usually, involuntary. Today, indoor air pollution caused by burning of traditional solid fuels such as woodfuel, agricultural residues, and dried animal dung in unvented cookstoves in rural areas of developing countries is not much different. In some cases, indoor air pollutants may even be 100 times higher than outdoors. In this case, use exhaust fans and nonozoneproducing air cleaners. The burning of such fuels, particularly in poor households, results in air pollution that leads to respiratory diseases which can result in premature death. Systematic information on stove interventions is limited. It refers to the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of air in the indoor environment within a home, building, or an institution or commercial facility. Continuous monitoring is a technique for sampling and measuring the realtime concentration of pollutants. Pdf the effect of outdoor and indoor air pollution on human health. It is the presence of one or more contaminants indoor that carry a certain degree of health risks. Pdf causes, consequences and control of air pollution. Environmental protection agency sets and enforces air quality standards only for ambient air. This study investigates the association between hap from cooking fuel and underfive mortality using indias national family and health survey nfhs datasets over the period 19922006.
Air pollution is defined as the emission of particulate toxic elements into the atmosphere by natural or anthropogenic sources 1. Man made activities thermal power plants, agricultural activities. Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances are introduced into earths atmosphere. Indoor air pollution can pose a serious health threat. With the continual improvement in our quality of life, indoor air quality has become an important area of concern in the twentyfirst century. Also introduced are a brief history of air pollution. Iaq is known to affect the health, comfort and wellbeing of building occupants. Most of us spend much of our lives inside buildings. Since most people spend more time indoors than out. The resulting indoor air pollution iap is a major threat to health, particularly for women and young children, who may spend many hours close to the fire. The concentration of these in and near the urban areas causes severe pollution to the surroundings. Join our community just now to flow with the file air pollution and make our shared file collection even more complete and exciting. Outdoor air pollution from factories, vehicles, wildfires, and other sources how to improve indoor air quality open windows to let in fresh air.
Today, indoor air pollution caused by burning of traditional solid fuels such as woodfuel, agricultural residues, and dried animal dung in unvented cookstoves in rural areas of. This activity demonstrates how visible and invisible pollutants can spread through the. This file is licensed under the creative commons attribution. National policies and challenges to reduce indoor air pollution in bangladesh. Definition of outdoor air pollution outdoor air pollution. Improved stoves have been offered as a potential tool to reduce exposure to hap and improve health outcomes. Gas stoves or badly installed woodburning units with. The presence of one or more contaminants like dust, smoke, mist and odor in the atmosphere which are injurious to human beings, plants and animals. Indoor air pollution and its effects on human health in ilam district of eastern nepal, 2015 1 n e p a l h e a l t h r es e a r c h c o u n c i l e s td.
Who air quality guideline aqg value at or under which a pollutant is. They also include offroad vehicles such as ships, airplanes, and equipment used in agriculture. Driving in cars, flying in planes, engaging in recreational activities, and being exposed to environmental pollutants all pose varying degrees of risk. Environmental protection agency epa studies of human exposure to air pollution indicate that indoor levels of pollutants may be 25 times, and occa. About 38% of the population in andhra pradesh relied on solid fuels for cooking in 201516. We conclude with a discussion on what is known regarding the effectiveness of popular strategies to combat indoor air pollution in developing countries. Indoor air pollution by formaldehyde in european countries. A comparative study of indoor air pollution and its. Household air pollution hap resulting from the use of solid fuels presents a major public health hazard. The changes were positively associated with pm 10 and pm 2. Indoor air pollution is when pollutants contaminate air indoors and is a very dangerous problem, claiming more than 2 million lives each year. Air pollution ppt and pdf for free download study mafia. Indoor air pollution is a concern in the developed countries, where energy efficiency improvements sometimes make houses relatively airtight, reducing.
Living organisms can survive without water for some time but cannot survive without air because when we breathe then we intake oxygen from air and releases carbon dioxide, if this procedure does not take. The subsaharan africa is among the regions in the world that have been highly affected by indoor air pollution. It may cause diseases, allergies and even death to humans. Jul 14, 2015 household air pollution hap resulting from the use of solid fuels presents a major public health hazard.
This file is licensed under the creative commons attributionnoncommercial 3. Indoor air pollution and its effects on human health in ilam. Because of this, outdoor air cannot enter as easily and dilute or clear away pollutants. Definitions and classifications used in the study of air pollution are introduced. Indoor air quality is influenced by concentrations of outdoor air pollutants, indoor sources of pollution, characteristics of the building and the habits of the residents. Roughly 6 times more than the food and drink consumed per day. For environmental health science students air pollution mengesha admassu, mamo wubeshet university of gondar in collaboration with the ethiopia public health training initiative, the carter center, the ethiopia ministry of health, and the ethiopia ministry of education august 2006. The resulting indoor air pollution iap is a major threat to health, particularly for women. But improving indoor air quality isnt just about keeping contaminants out of your indoor air, its also about maintaining a healthy air flow and getting toxins out when need be.
Poor indoor air quality has been linked to sick building syndrome, reduced productivity and impaired learning in schools iaq can be affected by gases including carbon monoxide, radon, volatile organic compounds, particulates. Air pollution and its effects on health case studies, india. Natural pollution volcanic eruptions, forest fires, biological decay. Since most people spend more time indoors than outdoors, exposure to indoor air pollutants is an important environmental problem. Monitoring and modeling of indoor air pollution indoor. Indoor air quality iaq is the air quality within and around buildings and structures. However, if you have asthma triggered by outdoor air pollution or pollen, opening windows might not be a good idea. Most people are aware that outdoor air pollution can impact their health, but indoor air pollution can also have significant and harmful health effects. Next, we discuss the available evidence on the relationship between air pollution and health, and between respiratory health and productivity. Statistical analysis of indoor air pollution 191 introduction all of us face a variety of risks to our health as we go about our daytoday lives. Statistics suggest that in developing countries, health impacts of indoor air.
Jun 05, 2015 identify possible sources of indoor air pollution. Mar 12, 20 indoor air quality is influenced by concentrations of outdoor air pollutants, indoor sources of pollution, characteristics of the building and the habits of the residents. Gas stoves or badly installed woodburning units with poor ventilation and maintenance can increase the indoor levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particles. Furthermore, the reliance on solid fuels and inefficient stoves has other, farreaching consequences for health, the environment, and. Epa studies indicate that the levels of many air pollutants may be two to five times higher in indoor air than outdoor air. Developing indoor air quality guidelines 2 setting indoor air quality guidelines 4 preparation of the guidelines 7 combined exposures 9 use of the indoor air quality guidelines in protecting public health 11 references 1. The use of biomass fuel as an energy source is the biggest contributor to poor indoor air quality. Indoor air pollution is ubiquitous, and takes many forms, ranging from smoke emitted from solid fuel combustion, especially in households in developing countries, to complex mixtures of volatile.
Indoor air pollution is a concern in the developed countries, where energy efficiency improvements sometimes make houses relatively airtight, reducing ventilation and raising pollutant levels. Indoor air pollution, health and economic wellbeing mit economics. Indoor air quality is subject to both temporal and spatial variations, and data on these variations would be needed to determine the concentrations to which occupants are exposed or to model indoor air pollution. Sources of air pollution include gases such as ammonia, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, methane and chlorofluorocarbons, particulates both organic and inorganic, and biological molecules. This definition implicitly acknowledges that some substances that are considered to be air pollutants are present naturally. Presence of any substance which has harmful effects on human or environmental health sources of pollution. Air plays a vital role not only in nature but also in the lives of human beings and all living organisms. Benzene 15 general description 15 indoor sources 15 pathways of exposure 17 indoor concentrations 18. Assessment and control of indoor air pollution, pp. Indoor air pollution and its effects on human health in.255 1533 639 220 253 112 1447 108 739 1290 686 47 174 1482 546 639 626 1111 1413 546 943 59 1001 678 978 1272 1091 1121 1555 1309 1293 1012 1292 937 778 479 1429 978 1106 177 247 1150 196 346 151 202